A research agenda is not a plan, but a list of “matters needing attention”. The study reported here built this list by using a systematic method of enquiry to discover which research is most needed to help the faster- and wider- use of more effective ways to care for chronic illnesses in the 28 EU countries. It presents the views of experts across Europe and will contribute to future European implementation research to speed and spread chronic care improvements in the EU. There is an increase both in chronic health conditions and in knowledge about changes which are effective for improving care, self-care and prevention. Implementation research can help speed and spread the use of these proven effective changes by practitioners organisations, patients and citizens. Implementation research is the systematic study of how best to enable people and organisations to carry into their daily routines new proven better ways of working and self care (“improvements”). It also involves understanding the conditions which help and hinder people to take up these new better ways.