By early 2014, it had become clear that rapid advances in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies were revolutionizing the treatment of DME — and the field of ophthalmology. Recognizing the clinically transformative nature of these remarkable therapies, the Angiogenesis Foundation decided that it was an opportune time to bring together the DME stakeholder community to review the impact that the new drugs are having on the treatment of DME;the challenges that such treatments present to patients, clinicians, advocates, and policymakers; and the questions that still need to be answered to ensure the very best outcomes for patients with the disease. As a scientific nonprofit organization with expertise in how anti-VEGF therapies are used across many different indications, the Angiogenesis Foundation recognized that it was well positioned to play the role of the neutral facilitator of such a review. Thus, it decided to host a global summit comprised of a group of international leaders in DME treatment and translational science — a summit similar to successful ones the Foundation has hosted on other angiogenesis-related diseases, including wet AMD and metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This white paper is a result of the open, comprehensive, and often provocative discussions that took place during the summit. It offers detailed summaries of the key points raised during the meeting.