Purpose: To assess the role of toothbrushing self-efficacy (TBSE) in diabetes management by comparing health education (HE) and health coaching (HC) in type 2 diabetes.
Methods: The data [HbA1c, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL), TBSE] were collected initially and after intervention. Participants were allocated randomly to HC (n = 77) and HE (n = 109) groups.
Results: The low TBSE subgroup showed greater improvement in TBSE in the HC group (∆mean:23.4 ± 9.2) than the HE group (∆mean:12.4 ± 10.3), (P < 0.01). The moderate TBSE group showed significant improvements only in the HC group (P < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in HbA1c and CAL in all the TBSE subgroups in HC (P < 0.05), which was significantly higher than in the HE groups (P < 0.05). Improvements in TBSE and CAL were explanatory variables for the reduction in HbA1c among the HC patients in all the TBSE subgroups (P < 0.05). Among HE patients, improvement in CAL was an explanatory variable for change at HbA1c in the low TBSE subgroup.
Conclusions: The present findings show that HC is more effective in terms of reduced HbA1c and CAL compared with HE. The data suggest that HC unlocks positive self-intrinsic motivation, anchoring the self-efficacy/competency beliefs for adjustment of healthy lifestyles. Thus, TBSE may be a practical starting point for empowerment and more effective outcomes.