Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and beta cell dysfunction. At diagnosis, 50% of beta cells are already lost. This continues as the disease progresses [1-2]. Preservation of residual beta cells is an important target . Usually, T2DM treatment starts with lifestyle improvements,
The prevalence of prediabetes is increasing worldwide and it is projected that more than 470 million people will have prediabetes in 2030. Prediabetes is a condition marked by above-normal blood sugar levels that aren't high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes.
GDM affects 3-5% of all pregnancies world-wide. While epidemiological evidence linking history of GDM and development of Type II DM later in life among women is strong, the relation of in utero exposure of diabetes on the pregnancy off-spring has been inconsistent.